Sunday, March 8, 2020

pharmaceutical morality essays

pharmaceutical morality essays What does it mean for something to be morally wrong? In order to answer this question I will start off with providing some essential background on the subject. Socrates once said that Moral philosophy is hard thought about right action Ethics is the section within philosophy, which evaluates what is morally right and wrong, and sets certain standards and norms of how you ought to behave in different situations. These however can vary from different societies with different religions and beliefs, and change from time to time. What is considered morally wrong one place might be fully accepted somewhere else, for example the use of alcohol. Also what was considered a norm hundreds of years ago, such as burning of witches, is totally unacceptable today. (We need Values and Morals, 2000) I believe we do have certain moral values that are clear for everyone; such as you should not kill or steal. However, distinguishing between what is morally right and wrong can often be subjective. Religions claim to be the source of our values and morals. I disagree with this, because the values are proven to be older than the religions, by the fact that many religions are based on the same ideas, and there is no evidence that people living before Christ had no moral. Religions do however have the golden rule in common, which is the highest rule of life. It is expressed in slightly different ways, but the general wording is Do unto others as you would have them do unto you. I believe this is a good starting point in considering what is morally wrong, however there is more to it than that. Personally, I know that what I consider to be morally wrong is influenced by the set of norms in my society, however I do believe that we all have an inner voice which tell us what distinguishes r ight from wrong. Many people believe that this inner voice is a God guiding them; others believe that it is t...

Friday, February 21, 2020

Structural analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words - 2

Structural analysis - Essay Example Not just that, electron microscopy was further augmented with suitable detectors to even extract quantitative micro-chemistry and micro-crystallographic information not only from the surfaces (in case of SEM) but also from within the bulk of the material in case of TEM. Enhancement in resolution could be possible because of much smaller value of the wavelength of the accelerated electrons (which are the probe in electron microscopy) as compared to that of the visible light (which is the probe in case of optical microscopy). Why electron microscopy could be expanded to provide much more information is because interaction of electrons with matter leads to generation of a variety of signals like different kinds of electrons and X-rays and these signals contain valuable information about not only the topography of the surface but also about chemistry of the material and orientation of the grains. Therefore, it becomes relevant to present a brief introduction to electron – matter i nteraction for better understanding of electron microscopy in general and SEM in particular. When an electron beam strikes with matters it interacts with the electrons – outer shell as well as core electrons and nucleus of the matter. Depending on the energy and intensity of the incident electron beam and thickness of the material being exposed to the electron beam different kind of signals are generated. A schematic diagram showing a typical electron – matter interaction is presented in Figure 1. Electron beam can penetrate through the specimen only if its thickness is less than 100 nm and only then the transmitted signals are produced. Transmitted signals are used in Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and related analytical equipment like STEM (Scanning TEM), ATEM (Analytical TEM), HRTEM (High Resolution TEM) etc with attachments like EELS, HAADF etc. These signals are not

Wednesday, February 5, 2020

Improving Speaking Skills of Non-Native Learners Assignment

Improving Speaking Skills of Non-Native Learners - Assignment Example Teaching speaking skills can be very challenging as well as very difficult. Learning to speak with proper grammar usage and pronunciation generally has a long learning curve. The ability to speak proper English is essential for being successful and in one’s career. This essay would be discussing how to improve the speaking skills of non-native learners and make them speak more fluently and accurately and encourage them to acquire an English native speaker accent. In the essay, some important aspects which are discussed include the accent issues for non-native learners, the methods used by teachers to ensure quality learning, some of which are motivating the non-native learners, innovation of the teaching activities, using paused transcriptions and using regular supervision and feedback. Additionally, the importance of using the main conversational types as spoken message repetition; namely comprehension checks, comprehension checks and clarification requests, is elaborated in the essay. In order to tackle these aspects of life, proper communication in English is imperative. The non-native learners would also regularly need to communicate with employers, neighbors and colleagues in English. They might also have an objective of receiving higher education in a foreign country or get promoted in their jobs, hence for numerous purposes; non-native learners enroll for spoken English classes (Ignash, 1995). The non-native learners are sometimes successful in carrying out conversational English with sound grammar. However, their accent and intonation make their speech partly incomprehensible. According to Hughes ‘I have argued that because intonational meaning is central to a full understanding of spoken English, it deserves more attention in Applied Linguistics. If researchers are to better understand language acquisition, language production, listening comprehension, and discourse strategies in the context of communication as a whole, intonational meaning should be a central part of the program.  

Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Human Trafficking And Sexual Exploitation Criminology Essay

Human Trafficking And Sexual Exploitation Criminology Essay When I was in Holland in August 1999, I was curious to see Amsterdams Red Light District for myself. Then it was the only place I knew in the world where prostitution was legal and have heard that women pose in window inviting customers in. I was with a friend and she started taking pictures of the women in the windows. When my friend took another picture when we were in the middle of the walkway, a prostitute came from behind her window, descendent on us furiously, grabbed the camera and violently removed the film from the camera. We were stunned, apologised profusely and hurriedly tried to make our way. A man came from somewhere and explained that taking pictures were prohibited. At that time I, like most people, have not heard about human trafficking. The issue of human trafficking has received considerable attention in the last ten years from researchers, non-governmental organisations, governments and international bodies the world over. Like most countries, South Africa too is a signatory to the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons (generally referred to as the Palermo Protocol). We formally consented to the Palermo Protocol in December 2003. Thus, as a nation we are obligated to ensure that our internal laws address the issue of human trafficking. Human trafficking has been called a heinous, monstrous,  [1]  crime against humanity  [2]  . It has also been coined modern-day slavery. Human trafficking can take the form of sexual exploitation, labour exploitation, slavery, illegal adoptions, removal of organs and other body parts, for conveying drugs nationally and internationally. However, as much as the issue has been discussed and debated, it has contributed to the hype surrounding FIFA World Cup 2010 and how human trafficking for sexual exploitative purposes will increase [even though there is no research to draw from] during the soccer world cup. This led to discussions and public outcry on whether or not to legalise prostitution; and whether South Africa need a specific legislation dealing with human trafficking. When I wrote my proposal, I considered several key focus areas. It soon became apparent that due to limitations such as time and length of paper, that I needed to reduce the key focus areas. Consequently I have decided for this paper, to focus on definition of trafficking the causes of trafficking explore prostitution and whether or not it should be legalised explore legislative developments pertaining to trafficking protective measures available to victims of trafficking. Research Methodology The research methodology consisted majorly of in-depth desktop research on trafficking of adults, and not people under the age of 18 years, for purposes of sexual exploitation. Much has been written about human trafficking, but it is still difficult to find reliable studies thereof. Some of these factors include deficiencies in methodology; defining trafficking; high levels of mobility; and the underground nature of trafficking; links to organised crime; victims fears and unwillingness to participate in research; and potential dangers to researchers.  [3]   Gould and Fick wrote that they failed to find a single prostitute who said she was being forced by unscrupulous pimps to sell sex against her will.  [4]  This does not mean that there are no victims of sex trafficking in and around Cape Town. I thought I could draw on an article written by Immelback Interviewing a Victim of Human Trafficking.  [5]  Upon closer look I realised that she did not interview a victim of human trafficking, but interviewed the Victim Assistance team who works with victims of trafficking. As it is difficult  [6]  to set up interviews with victims of sex trafficking due to a host of reasons, including personal, I abandoned interviewing them for this paper due to my limitations. I decided to instead research movies and or documentaries that depict human trafficking for purposes of sexual exploitation. I will reflect on one of such movies, namely the movie Taken where Liam Neeson plays the role of a concerned and heroic father, whose daughter and friend have been trafficked for purposes of sexual exploitation, and he lengths he went to rescue them. Throughout the paper I will try to avoid preferring to victims in the feminine form, even if the majority of the persons who victims of sex trafficking are women. This is to prevent sexism in my writing.  [7]   A Review Of The Literature Defining Human Trafficking One of most debated issues of human trafficking is the definition of human trafficking. Article 3 of the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons (Palermo Procol) defines trafficking as: trafficking in persons shall mean the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include at a minimum the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour of services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs; the consent of a victim of trafficking in persons to the intended exploitation set forth in subparagraph (a) of this Article shall be irrelevant where any of the means set out in paragraph (a) have been used; Most countries have taken the definition verbatim when they drafted their anti-trafficking laws. Kara  [8]  undertook several research trips to investigate human trafficking on four continents. He questions whether the definition is subparagraph 3(a) includes exploitation.  [9]  He opines that the wording only speaks to the movement portion of the chain, which explains why anti-trafficking law focus on movement more than exploitation  [10]  . He argues that trafficking is not about movement, it is about slavery.  [11]  He writes that current anti-trafficking efforts primary seek to crack down on modern-day slave traders, resulting in little more than adjustments in routes, larger bribes to border guards, and the procurement of false travel documents.  [12]  He suggests that a much clearer understanding of sex trafficking is required- wherein the movement and the purpose of the movement are disaggregated as criminal acts- to achieve greater abolitionist effectivene ss.  [13]  He suggests two definitions which could be used to eradicate sex trafficking, namely Slave trading- process of acquiring, recruiting, harbouring, receiving, or transporting an individual, through any means and for any distance, into a condition of slavery or slave-like exploitation.  [14]   Slavery- process of coercing labour or other services from a captive individual, through any means, including exploitation of bodies or body parts. He argues breaking the definition into different parts should be effective when formulating efforts to combat the crime of sex trafficking, and that confusion over what trafficking is results in blunted purpose, diffracted focus and exclusion of important components of trafficking-related crimes.  [15]   The Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC) Tsireledzani 2010 report dealt with the problems of trafficking. They have expanded the definition of trafficking to include trafficking within national borders; forced marriages; child labour; impregnation of a female against her will for the purposes of selling her child when born; and trafficking of body parts.  [16]   In South Africa Gould and Fick created a stir with their controversial research on sex trafficking in Cape Town. They argue that the definition is too broad  [17]  and that there seem to no agreement on what could be considered as exploitation  [18]  . Another criticism of the definition by Gould and Fick is the issue of consent of the victim being irrelevant.  [19]  They opine that by ignoring the fact that the victim consented to be trafficked, is to ignore the specific needs of the victim, especially the victim who do not wish to return home to the same circumstances that led the victim to be trafficked in the first place.  [20]  Gould and Fick conclude that critiques would suggest that the term trafficking may not be a useful lens through which to consider issues of exploitation and abuse in the sex work industry.  [21]   Sex trafficking and prostitution are often perceived as two sides of the same coin. However, it is not. It is important to differentiate between sex trafficking and prostitution. With sex trafficking the person is being exploited to perform sex work; the person is not directly paid, but money might be sent to the victims family; the person is compelled to do the sex work; the person is not in a position to stop working unless the person escape; the person does not have autonomy of movement- it is restricted; the person is not able to negotiate a rate, fee, hours; the person is not able to negotiate the sexual acts; the person is not able to negotiate safe sexual practices; With prostitution, however, the sex worker is paid directly (if the person is based at a brothel, money might be paid either to person self or the person managing the brothel); can decide to stop whenever; choose to do the sex work due personal circumstances; can negotiate sexual acts; can negotiate safe sexual practices; can negotiate the rate, fee and hours; is able to enjoy freedom of movement; can still enjoy life as a person (fall in love, have babies, etc) Why does sex trafficking occur? The root causes of trafficking are complex, the vulnerability resulting from poverty is a major contributor.  [22]  The HSRC list pull factors such as economic inequality, conflicts, adoption trade, the use of organs or body parts in rituals.  [23]  They list poverty and deprivation, persistent unemployment, gender discrimination, lack of information and education, harmful socio-cultural practices and lack of legislative and policy protection as push factors.  [24]  They also cite issues such as disempowerment, social exclusion, and economic vulnerability- the result of policies and practices- marginalise entire groups of people, rendering them vulnerable to being trafficked.  [25]   The general perception is that only men are traffickers. Women are also involved in human trafficking, not only as victims, but also as traffickers.  [26]  It has been found that traffickers are also women, as mainly Mozambican women in partnership with their compatriots and South African men who transport trafficked victims from Maputo to Johannesburg or Durban.  [27]  Victims trafficked to Europe are recruited by Malawian businesswomen.  [28]   Kara argues that sex trafficking occurs because it is a lucrative business.  [29]  He equates sex trafficking with drug trafficking.  [30]  He states that drug trafficking generate greater dollar revenues, but [sex] trafficking is more profitable.  [31]  Unlike a drug, a [human] does not have to be grown, cultivated, distilled, or packaged.  [32]  Unlike a drug, a [human] can be used by the customer again and again.  [33]  34It generates profits through the vulgar and wanton destruction of lives.  [35]   Kara describes several five ways how sex slaves are acquired, namely deceit, sale by family, abduction, seduction or romance, or recruitment by former sex slaves.  [36]  Each of these ways will be briefly illustrated below. Deceit Deceit involves false job offers, travel, or other income-generating opportunity, false marriage offers (mail order brides).  [37]  He opine that in countries where marriage is the only way for a female to secure social acceptance, basic rights, and avoid a lifetime of persecution, false marriage offers are effective ways to acquire sex slaves.  [38]  People living in refugee camps are very susceptible to sex trafficking as they are often not allowed to leave the camp to seek employment.  [39]  Traffickers visiting refugee camps with job offers are usually very successful in getting people.  [40]   Sale by or involvement of family members I first encountered family involvement when I read a news article.  [41]  The article said that police had rescued a seventeen year old teenage girl from Klerksdorp from a brothel in Table View.  [42]  It alleged that the mother of the teenager knew the brothel owner and have promised her daughter that she will be working as a child minder.  [43]  Did the mother knew that her daughter will be expected to do sex work? Poverty, desperation and displacement lead many families to sell a family member into slavery, and that they seldom are sold for greed.  [44]  Parents are often forced by poverty and ignorance to enlist their children, hoping to benefit from their wages and sustain the deteriorating family economic situation.  [45]   Abduction People are rarely abducted into sex trafficking, because it is difficult to transport person without drawing attention. People are also abducted in and from conflict zones and forced to serve as sex slaves to rebel commanders or are sold as slaves.  [46]   Kara says that not only is the abducted victim unwilling to travel, but also will to escape at any opportunity.  [47]  If a person is abducted into sex trafficking, the person is usually also drugged to facilitate easier movement. Seduction or Romance Victims are also lured into trafficking by promises of love and marriage. Traffickers would find attractive and vulnerable people (more often girls), offering them love and marriage, treating them to expensive gifts, seducing them to migrate to a rich country where they can build a life together.  [48]  Once the victim reaches the other country, they are forced into sexual slavery.  [49]   Recruitment by former slaves This too might be difficult to comprehend, but people are also recruited by other victims of trafficking.  [50]  Sex slaves employ adaptive mechanisms to survive their ordeals, including drug and alcohol abuse and the morose acceptance that their fate.  [51]  In East Africa, Ugandan women working as prostitutes in the Gulf States lure young girls from their country because they are usually preferred by male clients.  [52]   Lastly, Kara controversially opines that the United States is more responsible than any other nation for the inimical accretion in human exploitation, trafficking, slavery since the fall of the Berlin Wall. He notes that through the International Monetary Fund and other institutions, the US government rapidly imposed its particular brand of unfettered market economics upon the developing world, unleashing catastrophic increases in poverty, social upheaval, mass migration and lawlessness.  [53]   Should sex work be legalised? When dealing with the issue of sexual exploitation, the question is often raised whether or not to legalised or to decriminalise prostitution. Kara too addresses this in his research. He writes that the argument that prostitution be legalised rests on the premise that women have a right to control their bodies.  [54]  He indicates that legalisation would mean that prostitutes could enjoy the same benefits that other occupations do.  [55]  Legalisation would also allow for state monitoring to ensure that prostitutes were less subject to violence and exploitation and that it would make it more difficult to traffic people for sexual exploitation because victims would have rights under the law, and that criminalising prostitution leads to increased victimisation of trafficking victims.  [56]  Those who are against legalising prostitution argue that purchasing sex and operating sex establishments should be criminalised because prostitution can never be a choice and that the pr ofession is inherently based on a system of male sexual dominance, appropriating the female body for pleasure and reinforcing the subordination and sexual objectification of women.  [57]  He further writes that legalisation gives protection to brothel owners to purchase trafficking victims and inflict greater exploitation behind closed, but legal doors.  [58]  He writes that only governments, organized crime, and pimps benefit from legalisation and women and children suffer state-sanctioned rape and slavery.  [59]  He does not elaborate on how governments benefit from legalising prostitution. Kara investigated two countries, the Netherlands and Sweden legislation regarding prostitution. The Netherlands have legalised prostitution and Sweden has criminalised it. Even though prostitution was legal in Amsterdam, brothels were not until October 2000, when the ban was lifted to enable the Dutch government to exercise more control over the sex industry and counter abuses.  [60]  Brothel owners are issued licences if they are in compliance with certain standards, including panic buttons in work areas, hot and cold running water, and free condoms.  [61]   National Legislative framework Since South Africa signed and ratified the Palermo Protocol, we had to ensure that we enact legislation in accordance. The US Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons 2010 report ranked South Africa as Tier 2. This means that our government do not fully with the Trafficking Victims Protection Acts (TPVA) minimum standards, but are making significant efforts to bring us into compliance with those standards. Currently our anti-trafficking law is in draft stage, and it is not known if and when the bill will become law. It has been stated that we have several laws that deals with aspects of human trafficking, inter alia the Childrens Act 38 of 2005 (Chapter 18- sections 281 to 291); Films and Publications Board 65 of 1996; Human Tissues Act 65 of 1983; The Corruption Act 94 of 1992; Prevention of Organised Crime Act 121 of 1998; Infringement of Immigration Act 13 of 1996; Refugee Act 130 of 1998; and Extradition Act 67 of 1962. I will discuss these legislative provisions contained in the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act  [62]  as well as the Prevention and Combating Trafficking in Persons bill (2009). The Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act The Sexual Offences Act (SOA) can be used in the interim to charge and prosecute traffickers and victims of trafficking. Section 70 and 71 of the SOA are transitional provisions relating to trafficking. Section 70 deals with application and interpretation and section 71 deals with trafficking in persons for sexual purposes. Section 70 states that 70(b) trafficking includes the supply, recruitment, procurement, capture, removal. Transportation, transfer, harbouring, sale, disposal, or receiving of a person, within or across the borders of the Republic, by means of a threat of harm; the threat or use of force, intimidation or other forms of coercion; abduction; fraud; deception or false pretences; the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability, to the extent that the complainant is inhibited from indicating his or her unwillingness or resistance to being trafficked, or unwillingness to participate in such an act; or the giving or receiving of payments, compensation, rewards, benefits or any other advantages for the purpose of any form or manner of exploitation, grooming or abuse of a sexual nature of such person, including the commission of any sexual offence or any offence of a sexual nature in any other law against such person, whether committed in or outside the borders of the Republic, and trafficks and trafficked have a corresponding meaning. Section 71 reads 71(1) Any person (A) who trafficks any person (B) without consent of B, is guilty of the offence of trafficking in persons for sexual purposes. 71(2) A person who- orders, commands, organises, supervises, controls or directs trafficking performs any act which is aimed at committing, causing, bringing about, encouraging, promoting, contributing towards or participating in trafficking or incites, instigates, commands, aids, advises, recruits, encourages or procures any other person to commit, cause, bring about, promote, perform, contribute towards or participates in trafficking, is guilty of an offence of involvement in trafficking in persons for sexual purposes. 71(3) For the purpose of subsection (1), consent means voluntary or uncoerced agreement. The SOA elaborates further on the circumstances. It states that 71(4) Circumstances in which B does not voluntarily or without coercion agree to being trafficked, as contemplated in subsection (3), include, but are not limited to, the following where B submits or is subjected to such an act as a result of any one or more of the means or circumstances contemplated in subparagraphs (i) to (vii) of the definition of trafficking having been used or being present; or where B is incapable in law of appreciating the nature of the act, including where B is, at the time of the commission of such act- asleep; unconscious; in an altered state of consciousness, including under the influence of any medicine, drug, alcohol or other substance, to the extent that Bs consciousness or judgement is adversely affected. 71(5) Any person who has been trafficked is not liable to stand trial for any criminal offence, including any migration-related offence, which was committed as a direct result of being trafficked. Any act of trafficking which is not included in sections 70 and 71 of the SOA, such as kidnapping, assault (common, and assault GBH), extortion, slavery, attempted murder, and murder have to be prosecuted under general statutory or common law offences.  [63]   Malachi v Cape Dance Academy International Pty Ltd Others In a recent reportable case of Tatiana Malachi v Cape Dance Academy Others  [64]  , even though the legal question did not deal with human trafficking, I think that it was a case of human trafficking. The facts are cited as follows. Applicant is a citizen of the Republic of Moldova. She was employed as an exotic dancer at a nightclub managed by the first respondent (Cape Dance Academy International PTY LTD) and second respondent (House of Rasputin Properties PTY LTD). On her arrival in South Africa during March 2009, applicant handed her passport to the owner of Rasputin. Applicant was initially informed that her passport would be kept for 30 days in order to have it registered at the Police station. Second respondent subsequently kept applicants passport during the entire period of her employment. The owner of second respondent informed applicant that he would not return her passport unless the applicant paid him $2000 for her air ticket and R20 000 as a levy. The applicant was unable to pay either of these amounts, as she was not earning sufficient income during her employment with second respondent. The applicant was to remain in custody pending the return date, which was to be 30 July 2009. If the applicant furnished adequate and satisfactory security for the total claim of R100 000 plus interest and costs, the applicant would be released from custody and the order for arrest discharged. The applicant had no assets of any tangible value in South Africa and therefore was unable to furnish adequate and satisfactory security. By agreement between the parties, the first and second respondents secured the discharge of the arrest warrant by the third respondent and the applicant was released from the custody on 24 July 2009. Applicant sought and received the assistance of the Consul General of Russia to facilitate her return to her home country Moldova. Prior to her departure from South Africa on 9 July 2009, applicant was arrested and taken into custody at Pollsmoor Prison. The arrest was made pursuant to a court order issued by the third respondent ex parte on 9 July 2009 and warrant of arrest tanquam suspectus de fuga. If we interpreted sections 70 and 71 as is, based on the facts of this case, Ms Malachi arrived in March 2009 and employed as an exotic dancer. It not evident from the facts how she got to be employed as an erotic dancer. Lets for

Monday, January 20, 2020

Turn of the century Vermont literature :: essays research papers

The later half of the nineteenth century and early half of the twentieth century marked a period of great change in the United States. The demography was drastically affected by the influx of immigrants who left their homelands in search of a new life. People off all nationalities, languages, and colors came together as a newfound community to live work amongst one another, regardless of differences. Men sacrificed their homeland at the expense of providing for their families, their ultimate mission. With this new life brought hopes of freedom, opportunity, and work.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In modern society, money and material wealth are always at the center of life. The American dream is no longer characterized by a Leave it to Beaver lifestyle, but rather much larger in scale. The world we live in today is a capitalistic society that targets itself at making enormous profits off the funds of consumers. Americans want to be rich so that they can gain more for themselves to fulfill their greed, which never can be fully satisfied. The majority of people in today’s society can be characterized as the â€Å"Takers† of the world.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  This situation that has grown to be the common way of life has blossomed over time into the mess that we observe today. Greed did not always rule society the way it does today. Literature and memoirs from a by-gone era prove this to be especially true. In reviewing such works, much emphasis is placed upon community and family. The man was conventionally the head of the household and would labor intensely to earn the needed resources to supply for his family. None the less, families tended to be larger in those days with the mother at the forefront of household and child duties. Given this, these early people can be easily characterized as â€Å"Givers.†   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Marie Tomasi’s Like Lesser Gods illustrates this way of life through the men that came to Granitetown Vermont from lands far away in search of work at the granite quarries. The infinite amount of work was immeasurable which gave security to the people who came to work in this new land of Vermont. In turn, this brought self-fulfillment to the people who worked there. Mr. Tiff recalled a letter he had received from Pietro while in Italy that characterizes his feelings: â€Å"It is beautiful, this Vermont granite we work, and its lifetime is that of the pyramids†¦You ask me if here I am content?

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Effects of Technology on Childhood Essay

There are a lot of activities that children can engage in technology. They basically live in a world where everything that surrounds them is a gadget (Buckingham, 2007). Children especially in the developed world like the United States have become so addicted to technology that it seems as if they cannot live without it. Technology is used from watching movies and cartoons, to playing video games and even doing homework. Technology from computers to cell phones has affected every aspect of childhood. There have been debates by different experts on whether technology impacts on a child’s growth positively or negatively. Some have argued that technology does not change childhood negatively; in fact they claim that it enhances development. The opponents claim that technology has changed childhood negatively. What is undeniable is the fact that childhood in this era of technology is by far different from what it used to be in the earlier times (Sivin-Kachala and Bialo, 2000). This essay provides both sides of the argument. The position of the paper is that technology as changed childhood for worse. Positive changes There is the argument that technology has enhanced intellectual development in children. Technology that is educational has made information access and processing very fast. The easy access to information and research material has led to the creation of a generation of intellectuals. This is the argument that supporters of technology used by children base their claim. They argue that technology has been employed in education as a means of enhancing education. It is currently used as a learning aid (Sivin-Kachala and Bialo, 2000). The world requires smart people who are able to drive it into development from all the aspects of development. After all, who hates intellectuals? It is from this point of view that technology is seen as having influenced childhood positively. Technology is molding researchers at a very early age. Children are learning to do things and search for information without the help of their teachers. This is made possible by technology. It has made them self-sufficient because they can source for data and information without any help. Technology has thus made researchers out of the young minds, which is a positive change (Sivin-Kachala and Bialo, 2000). Negative change Unlike childhood in the past, childhood in digital era has a different way of comprehending space. This is because of the concept of virtual reality. Technology has brought the whole world close to the child such that he no longer can tell the right from wrong. The technology has brought the two ends together and separated the child from its childhood. The human relations and personal relationships have lost meaning in the digital world. Technology has led to the loss of the softness that was characteristic to childhood. In its place, what have emerged are aggressiveness, selfishness and seclusion. It has become very hard to make them know that they are doing the wrong thing, even when it is apparent that they are wrong (Healy, 1999). Growing up in technological culture has effects on the language learnt in childhood. Something else that changes as a result of exposure to the culture is the concepts that children acquire as well as their discernment of the realism. The kind of language used by children in the present day is very different from what they used to know in the earlier days. They are nowadays fond of using abusive language and tended to be disrespectful to the older generation. Children in this era have developed a tendency of alienating themselves from the older generation. The connection that used to be present between the older people and the children is no longer there. Children have developed independence from the adults and would rather go to their peers for help than face their parents or other adults for help. This is a negative change because the attachment that existed between parents and children as they grew up was very important in development and helpful in future life (Sivin-Kachala and Bialo, 2000). Childhood in technological era has tended to be that of isolation. Most of interaction with technology is in isolation. The kind of engaging games that used to be there in childhood are a thing of the past. In the earlier days, children used to play around the neighborhood in interactive games. The kind of outdoor and imaginary games that children involved themselves in were important they led to establishment of sufficient sensory and motor growth necessary for attention and education. Due to the lack of these kinds of exercise as a result of long exposure to technology has led to loss of attention, poor achievement in school and lack of enough sleep (Schacter, 1999). Technology has brought about health problems in children that never used to be there in the olden days. The problem of obesity is one of the issues. Children are fond of junk food and snacks and without active games there is no way of burning calories. This is the reason why obesity has become a very common childhood disease in the modern day. The children of this era have tended to be lazy and will never want to be engaged in active activities. There is also the problem of addition. Technology like video games and watching is very addictive. Most children when they are out of school, the only thing they involve themselves in are technology. Even when in class, some are always thinking of what they are going to do after classes. This has led to lack of concentration in school work. This kind of addition is very dangerous in the development of a child in his or her childhood (Spodek and Saracho, 2006). Technology has denied children the time to study facts and work out the way these facts are related to each other. This has been the characteristic of childhood; exploration of the real world with facts. The digital children have the virtue world brought before them without having to explore. There are no questions asked or facts worked out. They take everything the way it is given and that is what they know as the reality, which in the real sense is not. This has affected their creativity and innovation. Technology has killed innovation in childhood. In the childhood meant inventing new games and how to make the existing ones more interesting. This is no longer what happens for the kinds of games offered by technology are direct and very addictive. This is what the child plays over and over without getting bored (Goessl, 2002). There is no way of sieving the kind of information availed by technology to the children through the internet. In the past, there were categories of information that were suitable for children at every age. At that time it was possible for children to be directed to the material that is proper for their age. This is no longer the case. Children are learning most of the things from the internet. The kind of question that could be evaded to protect the child’s morality has been answered by the internet. Sex-related content in the internet has been exposed to children at a very young age. Children have ceased to be children any more and become more like teenagers. It is like the stage of childhood is getting out of the lifecycle. This is because the things leant during this stage in the digital era are the sort of things that people became aware of at teenage. The children nowadays want to be in boy-girl relationship at the age of eight years. The sad thing is that they are well aware of what goes on in such a relationship (Armstrong and Casement, 2000). Technology has distracted children from other things that have been important in their childhood for a long time. The means to discovery through exploration has changed. For the things that the children would inquire from the older people or explore to find answers, they now need to go to the internet and get them. They are given answers in details that in the old days were concealed to protect them. Children longer engage in debates and discussions. By debating or discussing subjects or topics that they fail to understand, children are able to gain a better understanding. Where they are hunting for information by themselves, they are likely to get desperate when they do not get, or worse, get into their mind incorrect information (Spodek and Saracho, 2006). Reading has been completely killed by technology. Children are becoming dumber for engaging themselves in things that are not helpful to them. Reading or studying at home is a forgotten concept. Studies show that children who mostly do their homework are the ones who enjoy the pleasure of doing it using their computers. There are very few who will seat down to read long comprehensions, while there is a movie or cartoon waiting to be watched, or a video game waiting to be played. The brain power and potential of childhood is going to waste due to technology. Children no longer do thorough research for their assignment when there is the option of copying and pasting from the internet (Sivin-Kachala and Bialo, 2000). Aggressiveness in childhood is more than it used to be in the past. It has been argued that watching violence and playing violent games tends to make children become more violent. This is a fact that has been quantified through psychological researches. Children have tended to be more aggressive towards their peers due to long exposure to aggressive films and video games. There is a new meaning of kindness, forgiveness, compassion and the other virtues that were instilled in children during their childhood (Haugland, 1995). This is because of the contradiction that is brought about by technology. It has become their best teacher and the ones that are more attractive. There is no way to teach a child that scores are settled through forgiveness, while the same child is learning that they are settled through fist fights. What the child has learnt from his games or films are the ones that are more of a reality to him (Goessl, 2002). Summary Technology has impacted negatively on childhood. It has changed childhood more to the negative than the positive. There are very few positive effects of technology on childhood. The many negatives discussed prove the extent of the problem. It is a pity that children do not go out to play any more like they used to do in the past. Technology has also affected their functioning in that they no longer differentiate fiction from the reality. They are living in a world of their own filled with gadgets and machines. This is based way of communicating in the children of today. Their interaction is no longer with fellow humans, but with machines and virtual beings. Conclusions It is clear from the research that technology has killed what childhood used to be and there is no way to reverse it. Technology has become deep rooted in their life that it has become part of them. Preventing children from hazards associated with technology has become very hard. Where the child is restricted at home, there is the option of accessing it in school. Others get access through their friends. Technology has become the base on which people are basing their life. Nevertheless it is important for parents to watch what their children engage in. the parents should understand the kind of danger their children are exposed to and then find ways of helping them to live healthily through technology. It is also important to get professional help where things get out of hand. Parents need to understand that technology is harmful to their children and that it is there to stay. It is therefore their responsibility to control how their children interact with it. References Armstrong, A. & Casement, C. (2000). The Child and the Machine: How Computers Put Our Children’s Education at Risk. New York: Robins Lane Press. Buckingham, D. (2007). Beyond technology: children’s learning in the age of digital culture, Cambridge: Polity Press. Goessl, L. (2002). Technology: Its effects on children. Retrieved on April 30, 2010 from http://www. helium. com/items/613503-technology-its-effects-on-children Haugland, S. (1995). Computers and young children Will technology change early childhood Education? Early Childhood Education Journal Volume 22, Number 4 Healy, J. (1999). Failure to Connect: How Computers Affect Our Children’s Minds — and What We Can Do About It. New York: Simon & Schuster. Schacter, J. (1999). The Impact of Education Technology on Student Achievement: What the Most Current Research Has to Say. Santa Monica, CA: Milken Exchange on Education Technology Sivin-Kachala, J. , & Bialo, E. R. (2000). 2000 Research Report on the Effectiveness of Technology in Schools, 7th Edition. Washington, DC: Software & Information Industry Association. Spodek, B. & Saracho, O. (2006). Handbook of Research on the Education of Young Children New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Friday, January 3, 2020

The Role and Function of the Major Monsters in Dante’s...

In Dante’s Inferno, throughout the epic journey of the character Dante into the depth of Hell, he encounters a number of beasts and monsters as he passes along the way, especially through the seven stations of the greatest monsters of Hell. The most significant of these seven major monsters is of central importance to the character Dante’s journey as well as to the narrative, for these monsters not only challenge the presence of the character Dante in Hell, but they are also the important custodians of Hell. Moreover, some of them even have more particular duty to perform, apart from being the Hell guardians. From this point, in this essay of Dante’s Inferno, the seven major monsters, namely Minos, Cerberus, Plutus, Minotaur,†¦show more content†¦The first major monster to be discussed is from the scene in the Canto V; Minos, the monster who stands at the border of the Second Circle of Hell, whose duty is to assign condemned souls to their punishments. He curls his tail around himself a certain number of times indicating the number of the proper circle to which each soul must go according to his or her sin. The excerpt taken from the Canto V to portray the great monster Minos is as follow: According to aforementioned quotation, it portrays that the great monster Minos, as the infernal judge and the agent of God’s justice, represents the human’s conscience and morality. For the time when the sinners come in front of the monster, it reminds the readers to think about themselves: what they have done in the past, or more precisely, their own sins. The monster Minos, moreover, plays an important role to the development of the story as his terrifying treatment of the sinners’ souls and his dreadful method of indicating the circle of Hell for all sinners help increasing the readers’ horror, as well as adding the highly alarming atmosphere to the story. The monster Minos also warns the character Dante in this scene that Dante should not enter the Hell and he even orders Dante to go back, for the Hell is the place for the dead sinners only – not for the living souls, which simply means that the poet Dante wants toShow MoreRelatedThe Inferno : Dantes Personal Journey Through Hell1553 Words   |  7 PagesIn the text, The Divine Comedy by Dante, the Inferno focuses on Dante’s personal journey through hell. Throughout Dante’s journey, he goes through the nine circles of hell. Dante was exposed to a lot of things that he’s never encountered such as limbo, lust, gluttony, greed, anger, and much more. These topics of the Inferno all correlate to my life as nursing student. I wouldn’t like to compare something that I am passionate about, however the process of becoming a nurse is very stressful. DanteRead MoreVideo Games : A Multi Billion Dollar Domain1706 Words   |  7 PagesPeach’s role is essentially that of the ball. (Sarkeesian, A)† The Damsel in Distress trope disempowers female characters and robs them of the chance to be heroes. The second trope is Women as Background Characters. Anita Sarkeesian defines the Women as Background Characters trope as â€Å"the subset of largely insignificant non-playable female characters whose sexuality or victimhood is exploited as a way to infuse edgy, gritty or racy flavouring into game worlds.† These characters occupy the role of notRead MoreW.B Yeats Great War Poets Symbolism2893 Words   |  12 Pagesas a means of representing mystical, dream-like and abstract ideals. This was especially prevalent towards the latter part of his life when, inspired by his wife Georgiana Hyde-Lees, he developed a symbolic system which theorized movements through major cycles of history in his book A Vision (1925, 1937)[1]. â€Å"The Wild Swans at Coole† and â€Å"The Second Coming† are poems of Yeats’ which incorporate symbols, and will be discussed in this essay. In A Vision, Yeats speaks of â€Å"gyres† as his term forRead MoreThe Nature Of The African Landscape10552 Words   |  43 Pagessocial, cultural, and political backgrounds presented Africa with a very shining image. They loomed Africa as exotic, strange, and the promised of golden opportunities. However, in the nineteenth-century Western colonial discourse, Africabegan to function as a synonym to absence and infinite. (Miller, 1996: 92). This is because the colonial missionaries and administration of Africa turns it into a realm of darkness, corruption, and a source of terror that lacks shape and pattern. The credential of